All five senses are important to the mammals of the world; though some senses are more important than others depending on what type of species you are dealing with. The majority of animals rely on their sense of smell a great deal. For example, your dog explores the world through his nose. However, humans explore the world through their eyes. Your eyes are a VASTLY important part of your body, but how well do you understand the intricate anatomy that makes these precious commodities work?

Let’s take a deep dive into the subject and learn more about ideal eye care in the process!

At a Glance

The eye functions somewhat like a digital camera. Similar to a camera lens, all parts of the eye work together to help capture light. The light you capture is then transmitted to your brain through images, which then helps you make sense of what you see, all in a fraction of a second!


The front surface of the eye is also known as the “window of the eyes”. This is an apt name considering light is captured and focused by the cornea. Given the incredible importance of this function, you should always ensure that you are taking good care of your eyes. Keep informed about disorders that can affect this crucial part of the eye and take steps to prevent them with help from your local Austin, Southwest Austin, and Kyle, TX eye doctors.


This is the colored part of the human eye. The iris is responsible for controlling the amount of light that enters the eye.


This is the opening located in the middle of the iris. All light passes through the back of the eye through here, and the size of the pupil adjusts depending on how much light reaches inside.


The lens is a transparent structure that further focuses light into the retina. This helps eyes focus on near and approaching objects, similar to the autofocus lens on cameras and phones. The lenses of your eyes deteriorate with age—hence why people turn to reading glasses or contact lenses for help.


This is a layer of nerves that covers the back of the eye. The retina is responsible for capturing light and creating impulses that are sent to the brain.


Inside the retina, the macula is a small area that contains light-sensitive cells and allows us to see fine details.

Optic Nerve

Optic nerve fibers carry visual images from the retina to the brain. The optic nerve sends data, which consists of signals relating to darkness or color to the brain.


This is the clear, jelly-like substance that fills the center chamber of the eye (the circular cavity inside the eyeball).

How Do Eyes Work?

Now that you know all the general parts that make up the eye, understanding how these different parts work together should make more sense!

After light enters through the cornea, it passes through the pupils to reach the lenses of the eye. Depending on how much light is entering, the iris has the ability to enlarge or shrink. On the way to the retina, the light passes through the vitreous. Once the light reaches the back of the eye and hits the retina, it is then transformed into impulses that are carried straight to the brain. The brain then translates these impulses into visuals that we actually see.

Contact Your Local Eye Doctor Today!

Knowing the importance of the general parts of the eye is important when it comes to improving your eye health and overall health as well! A small issue with any part of the eye can affect a person’s vision entirely. Taking the time out to visit your eye doctor regularly for comprehensive eye exams is essential in order to maintain good eyesight and prevent future problems. With locations in Austin, Southwest Austin, and Kyle, TX, Howerton Eye’s seasoned eye doctors can help you with all your vision needs. Our team is dedicated to providing personalized eye care. Give us a call at (512) 443-9715 or schedule your appointment online with us today!

For more information on taking care of your precious eyes, follow these health tips and schedule regular eye exams with your trusted Austin, Southwest Austin, and Kyle, TX eye doctor!